In this video, made in late May, we see a 10-year-old apple tree that Dan Neuteboom and William Seabrook grafted in an earlier video, in March. The grafts have taken very well, the branches are healthy with a good set of leaves. If the graft does not develop properly, this may be caused by a hole in the tree wax. If this happens, just fill in the cracks and holes with a proprietary flexible tree wax that you can buy in garden centres. So, if you graft over a tree, it’s a good idea to go back after a few days and inspect the graft, correcting any holes or cracks in the wax. If the graft is completely sealed, it is more likely to be successful.
Narration: Dan Neuteboom
Camera: John Paddy
Dan Neuteboom shows us a 15-year old pear tree that was cropping irregularly. To improve the situation, he grafted a second pear variety onto the main variety, right at the centre of the tree, choosing a variety that flowers slightly earlier, so that the pollen of the grafted variety is ready as soon as the flowers of the main variety are opening. The system helps ensure good cross-pollination, encouraging fruit set, and therefore a good crop. An easier way to obtain the same effect is to place some flowering branches in a bottle and hang it in the tree. The graft is a permanent solution. See this video for more details on how to perform the graft. Click to watch.
In this video, William Seabrook provides a close-up demonstration of whip & tongue grafting, on a fifteen-year old tree that will be changed to a different variety. In the first section, he explains exactly how to make the cuts in the tree and the scion to ensure that the graft is successful. The double cut enables optimum contact between the vascular cambium tissues of the two parts and holds the scion firmly in place, ready to be securely fastened with the sealing tape and grafting wax. Callousing will appear within three to four weeks.
The rind graft method is used to create a graft on a larger piece of timber. The first diagonal cut is followed by a short cut at the end of the scion to create a point, and then another cut that creates a 90-degree angle in the cambium tissue. The bark of the parent branch is cut for a length corresponding to the scion, and then the knife is used to lift the bark. The scion is then inserted so that the right-angled surfaces come into contact with the corresponding surfaces in the branch. The graft is finished in the usual manner, with sealing tape, and then grafting wax is applied to seal the cut surfaces to prevent the entry of air or rain. The grafting wax should be applied generously because the rising sap has a tendency to push out from the cut surfaces. Click to watch.
Nurseryman William Seabrook demonstrates the tools and techniques involved in whip & tongue grafting, which is a method of uniting a scion of the desired variety to the rootstock. To make the graft, the right tools are essential: sealing tape, secateurs, a specialist sharp knife, the wax, and the large cutter used to prepare the rootstock. William Seabrook demonstrates how to cut the scion, with double cuts – a first diagonal cut and a second tongue cut – in both scion and rootstock, which interlock so that the vascular cambium along the cut surfaces is as great as possible, for optimum cambial contact. The diagonal cut in the scion is made so that the bud ends up directly over the cut of the stock. This helps keep the tree straight. The graft is secured using sealing tape tied tightly, and then the cut surfaces are coated in grafting wax to keep air, rain and infection out. Click to watch.